By-products

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By-products

Zinc Clinker

At Rönnskär, zinc oxide, so-called zinc clinker, is extracted from slag from the copper process. Zinc clinker, a yellowish powder, is carried by ship to the zinc smelter Boliden Odda in Norway, where zinc metal is extracted.

Waste rock

Another product, which lately has been in focus, is waste rock. The demand for rock material is increasing both in Sweden and abroad. The waste rock has a potential to become a valuable commodity. Areas where waste rock is used are as ballast in concrete and asphalt and also crushed for road construction.

Selenium

Selenium is extracted as crude selenium in the precious metals plants. Crude selenium is a black powder. Rönnskär's selenium contains min. 95 % and Pori's min. 99.5 %.

Crude selenium is sold for further refining. It is used in medicine; for soil improvement; in the paint industry; for glass colourising; decolourising and to make bismuth/selenium alloys for the steel industry.

Copper Telluride

Copper telluride (33 % copper, 35 % tellurium and 6 % silver) is extracted as a black powder in the precious metals plants, both at Rönnskär and Pori. At Rönnskär, copper telluride contains 33 % of copper, 35 % of tellurium and 6 % of silver. At Pori copper telluride contains 45 % of copper and 25 % of tellurium.

Copper telluride is sold for further refining into pure tellurium. Tellurium is used as an alloy substance within the steel industry and also for rubber production.

Iron Sand

Iron Sand is an example of recycling of material within Rönnskär's processes. The raw material is slag from copper production that is refined and granulated into a black course-grained, vitreous material.

The excellent insulating and draining qualities of iron sand make it a suitable filling material for road and building construction. Iron Sand is sold in bulk and loaded directly onto lorries. Most of it is sold in the immediate area. The use of iron sand reduces the amount of gravel and sand removed from nature.

Nickel Sulphate

At Rönnskär, nickel sulphate is extracted as crude nickel sulphate (25 % nickel) from SX/EW solution in the electrolytic refinery. The product is a greenish powder and is packed in so-called "big bags". At Pori, nickel sulphate contains min. 21 % of nickel. Nickel sulphate is sold for further refining into nickel salts.

Metallic nickel is used in alloys for stainless steel, for nickel-plating and in rechargeable batteries.